Ch.37: Nuceriae

According to history, around the sixth century BC the local people Oscans founded the ancient city of Nuceria, located between the provinces of Naples and Salerno;  a very interesting site due to its favorable geographic position because it is next to water sources and a very fertile country, since in full Vesuvius as well as protected by the mountain range of the Amalfi and Sorrento coast.  As for the etymology of the name, a theory, always based on the story told by Servius, is that the ancient inhabitants of Nuceria wanted to remember their place of origin, place that historians locate Palestine on the shores of Saron River, the city of Sarnos Illyria, fastest explanation because the assumptions are many.
The etymology of the name would be derived from Nou, Nu, which means "new" and Crium, shouted, Crio, "or rock fortress", which would have resulted Nukria, Nucrium, Nuceria, namely new fortress.  In fact, the name comes from Nuvkrinum Alafaternum, so "nuv krin +" and alafartern: literally: New (nuv) Roque (krin) of Alfaterni (fraternal), so Nuceria Alfaternae.  Nuceria Alfaternae in Latin, Greek Νουκρία sometimes Νουκερία, also said just now with the label of Nuceria was a city built in the sixth century BC on the site of the current town of Nocera Nocera Inferior and Superior, Campania .  The city was considered one of the greatest of the ancient Roman Campania, with its famous peak for the strength of the walls and the difficulties to invade.
She was city Oscan, Etruscan, Roman and Samnite, Roman encor to finish.
 According to the most ancient sources, it was founded by Sarrastes (inhabitants of the banks of Sarnum, descendants of internal Valleys Campania. At the end of the seventh century BC the indigenous peoples of the occupied valley to control the way south, and partly also control the sea lanes with Stabiae how important ports. The well is created Nuvkrinum (literally "new fortress"), and therefore it colonizes a strategic location, well defended between the gulfs of Naples and Salerno, keep a large fertile valley wealth.
The center was born, therefore, as a control facility in the late seventh century BC, which will be part of the Dodécapolis, all twelve most important cities of the Etruscan settlement in Campania, created to block the Greek northward expansion. After the defeat of 474 BC, in the sea of Cuma, the Etruscans left the region and Nuvkrinum passes the Samnites.
 The city, in the fifth century BC, changes name is added to the place name Nuvkrinum that of Alfaternum, the name of the Samnite tribe Alfaternei.  In 280 BC, it was one of the most important cities of Campania.
It became the capital of the confederation says "League of Nuceria" which included Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae Sorrento;  She smote her own money which will then be used throughout the region, on which was written "Nuvkrinum Al (a) faternum" and uses a special alphabet called "Nucerino alphabet", itself based on the Greek and Etruscan.  The development of the city before the Samnites is caused by the fact that she was on an important transport route, such as via Stabianae to Pompeii in the Pagus Vesuvianum, and Via Popilia Nuceria between Capua and the Calabria region.

It will then be an ally of Rome in 307 BC in the Samnites Wars in the Cause Italic, it will be destroyed by Hannibal because of his loyalty to the Romans in 216 BC. At the end of the war he was awarded the Romans with a complete reconstruction, while its inhabitants moved temporarily to nearby Avella.  Attacked and even sacked during the Social War, she obtained Roman citizenship, inserted into the menenia Tribe.  Probably in the time of Augustus (in 42 BC), the city became a Roman colony like all the neighboring cities, under the name of Nuceria Constantia.

The city has always kept its cultural origins, in fact, in that time, beyond the language of colonization that was imposed by Rome, by special status, she had kept the characteristic of talking and writing in Greek, and that as a sign of cultural distinction. The eruption of 79 AD, many damaged the city and surrounding countryside but it will quickly resume;  does not diminish its importance. The city will soon recover and will increase in wealth, strength and prosperity, until the end of the Roman Empire, when it will start to decline.  This process will end with the occupation of the area by the Lombards, who will ransack and leave uninhabited for many centuries.  In 553, with the Battle of Lattaris Monts on the Sorrento side, ends the Ostrogothic domination.

Of the nineteenth century Excavated have uncovered some characteristic of the ancient city of Nuceria. The City occupied an area of 1200 x 950 m, and developped in typical Roman scheme, with straight streets which intersect at right angles.
 The fortification walls of the city, the double curtain, were built in the second century BC and have a thickness of 1.5 m and a height of 5 m, while the distance between the two screens is to about 12 m; some feature of these walls have been found in recent excavations.

The Nuceria Greco-Roman Theatre was built in the second century BC It has been identified and highlighted in seventy years and eighties first in the area between the walls and Pucciano locality. Leaning against the south side of the ramparts of the ancient city of Nuceria Alfaterna, theater remainder of the first phase of construction of the second century BC, later it was incorporated as an extension actually era of Augustus Tiberius. The ensamble survived the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, and continued to be used until the late fourth century.  When, fell into disuse, was slowly stripped of its most valuable parts.  Today it is partially excavated, and are visible parts of the auditorium, the orchestra and the stage parodoi section.

Recent excavations still ongoing, have helped to visualize that there was a central part of the town rich in monuments as a public amphitheater and a spa complex.  Although the pattern of this monument is clear, remains difficult to visualize the complex and because much of its structure remains completely enclosed and incorporated in houses downtown.  The currently visible structure appears to be dated from the mid-first century BC, with the end of the reconstructions of the first century AD.  The remains of a large Thermal Complex are also visible, also inserted in the structure of the new city.

The 1994 excavations focused light on an important necropolis in Pizzone resort, it is located between the East City walls and the route of the Via Pompilia.  It dates back to the first century BC.  As usual in the Roman world, the tombs were placed along the main road out of town.  Three major landmarks: the first built by the people (family) Numisia round, the second Mausoleum people with Cornelia Carée shape, and the third said the Lutatia people, overlooking the picturesque street by two staircases.