1 - Rome: Greek IntroductionFrom Troy to Aeneas
We will discover and analyze the history and vicissitudes of cities and civilizations of Greek and Roman times such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis and many others, which characterized the entire perimeter plain of this mountain that already in the times older ones were called Vesuvius. We could in no way begin this work of research and study, without letting ourselves be initiated by the facts and historical events that may have occurred not at birth, but certainly at the development of these cities. Towards the end of their existence, even before Vesuvius in its great "magnanimity" we safeguard them so that a thorough study is possible some millennium after, they lived in an opulence without equal, and their position in the context of the moment was certainly not insignificant. The eruption of 79 then froze the time, so that we find it awake today. So to speak of Rome and to understand how its birth has conditioned the ancient world and therefore these cities too, will allow us to better discover and know them. The contribution of Rome in this plain dictates of Vesuvius, has conditioned prodigiously what we are going to visualize today, to analyze it is therefore a step almost obligatory .......
Starting in a strict search on a theme like Rome, requires us to follow two different directions, on the one hand the 'Myth', with its good dose of abstract that it entailed, very much related to the history of the Greece, and on the other hand try to find correspondence in the archeological sheets hoping that they could comfort the mythological assumptions that are still not too real. The 10-20 ° century BC, remains for the Italic earth a period of great myths and mysteries, it was positioned in the middle of two very distinct zone, between the known and the unknown; to orient the Greeks with the civilizations of Crete and Mycenae, without forgetting the Middle Eastern empires, places of knowledge and knowledge; the West a world of mystery where we knew almost nothing, and where history was all created. The 'italic' region becomes transition zone and borders for unknown land, to dominate and organize, but also center of great migratory movements that will be characterized by the sense of these regions: the Etruscans who leave Central Asia for s' establish in Tuscany in search of fertile land, and the Greek eros like Ulysses and Diomedes who leave one towards the Tyrrhenian Sea the other for the Adriatic Sea, and always Troy, with the departure of his prince beaten Aeneas in search of new lands to discover. We are around the 15th century BC, the story is written ... ..
EVANDROS : The Mythological Facts .........
In the oldest mythological origins, it is said that the god Saturn abandoned Olympus to descend to earth and live with men; he was persecuted and forced to hide in order to save himself from the anger of the gods. The place where he found his serenity was called Latium, in Latin, "Cachette", and the people who will live there later will be called Latini or Latins. This place has welcomed the god Saturn, and it will make this land calm and without violence.
Ovid and Virgil, we learn that the first inhabitants of Lazio, then wild, were the fauns and the nymphs, primordial beings born of the same elements of the nature. The men who came later then found a peaceful and idyllic environment, ruled by Saturn, a benevolent god, awakening the riches of the earth and the fertility of the plant kingdom. This primordial being was then incorrectly associated with Cronos who, as we are told, was dethroned by his son Jupiter (Zeus) to become the italic king of the age of well-being and the main deity of Lazio. All the ancient Latin peoples were called "saturnia people". Italy itself, as Virgil asserts, was originally called "Terrae Saturniae".
The bountiful and peaceful age ended, while the civil cohabitation of the people was replaced by theft, with discord and with the war. The dark times began with the raids of Ausoni (Osque people of Campania) and Sicanes (peoples of Sicily) against which the Arcadian people of King Evander, a population of Greek immigrants from Pallante in Arcadia, was forced to fight. After various vicissitudes they arrived and settled on the hill called later Palatine, where they founded a first village they called Pallantium or Palatium from which derives the name of the Palatine Hill. A representative of these thieving and corrupt peoples who opposed the new arrivals was Cacus, son of the god of fire Hephaestus (Vulcan) and Medusa. He had taken refuge on Aventine Hill in a vast and horrible cavern; he had a giant physical constitution and for that he terrorized the neighboring populations to whom he spared no occasion of crime for his innate malice.
His misdeeds ended with the intervention of Hercules who passed with the flock of Geryon. The giant Cacus then, will take advantage of his sleep to rob him of cattle with a clever expedient, leading them into his cave. When he awoke, Hercules resumed his journey, not knowing that cattle had been stolen. As he approached the cave of the Cacus, he heard the plaintive bellow of the captive beasts in response to the bellowing of his flock. Counting the beasts, he noticed the flight and immediately rushed into the cavern where, seized with fury, he attacked the rock of the cavern to shake him with great power. In front of this fury, the earth trembled and the hero, discovered the cave, where the giant died.
When Hercules visited King Evander, he welcomed him, purified him of the murder of Cacus, he recognized his great worth and his divine origin and, by gratitude, he devoted his worship to the Ara Maxima, between the Palatine and the Aventine . the Cult of Hercules then brought to the provinces of Campania. Evander, the Greek hero son of Hermes and the nymph Nicostrata, was a good king. This quality is also expressed by its name, in Greek Euandros which means etymologically "good man". The reason for his migration from Pallante to Arcadia, which dates back to a few decades before the end of Troy, changes according to the story told. Probably, it could have been caused by a famine or a popular uprising. Arrived on the lands of Lazio, he settled with his mother and a group of Pelasginians on the Palatine Hill, to found his mythical city in honor of his ancestor Pallanteo. Here, he was well received and welcomed by the aborigines but he had to fight against the giant Erilus de Preneste, son of the goddess Feronia.
The Palatine Hill was chosen by Nicostrata, called Carmenta by the inhabitants. She receives prophetic gifts and will help her son in the mission of civilization of the territory. Evander will become propagator of just laws and taught the natives the art of writing, music and agriculture, worship of the gods of Arcadia of Ceres (Demeter), Neptune (Poseidon) and especially he transforms the cult pre-existing god Faune Lupercus, a beneficent god who was very recognized here, descended from the god Mars, protector of herds and shepherds, to that of his similar Greek Pan-Licio, in honor of which were instituted the festivals of Lupercalia which were celebrated on the Palatine in February. According to some sources, Faune was a primitive king of Lazio considered the son of Circe and Jupiter and father of the next King Latinus. He was also the protector of the fauns, rural demons of the shepherds, equivalent to the Hellenic satyrs. Like the satyrs they had indeed a double nature: half men and half animals, with horns and goats' hooves.
[...... Reference Wikipedia: Lupercales
The Lupercalia are, in ancient Rome, annual festivals celebrated by the luperques (Luperques gathered in the college of Luperques were priests of ancient Rome) from February 13 to 15, near a cave called Lupercal (located at foot of Palatine Hill and probably discovered in November 2007), in honor of Faunus, god of herds who defended them against wolves, hence the term Lupercus attributed to him. ....]
The Pan-Modified Wildlife cult involved a Lupercus procession, in which half-naked youths, dressed only in goatskin, ran through the streets, beating women who met with leather straps to promote their fertility. Another very important cult was addressed to Fauna, wife of Fauno, also called "Bona Dea", who had her sanctuary under the Aventine. Here, every year, women and girls celebrated their mysteries with the absolute exclusion of men, who in turn excluded them from that of Hercules. Evander and his mother Carmenta received the honor of an altar, that of Evander was built at the foot of the Aventine, near the Trigemina Gate and that of Carmenta at the foot of the Capitolium, near the door Carmentalis.
Meanwhile, in Greece, a few decades later, a perverse war in the country, between Athens and Troy ...... ..
Paris Trojan prince
The Trojan war, which highlights the Athenians and the Trojans rivalry is a war which follows the abduction of Helen, wife of Menelaus, King of Sparta, by the Trojan Paris. It is Homer makes us an almost full story and that we learn about the kinds of this conflict.
In Greek mythology, Paris also called Alexander, is the Trojan Prince, first son of Priam King of Sparta and his wife Hecuba. Pregnant Hecuba, receives an omen in a dream, he tells him that the future prince she carries in her womb will cause the destruction of the city of Troy after long battles. Seized by fear, King Priam ordered her other son Aesacros, that he had his wife previous called Arisbe, the born future is murdered: Paris will not be killed, but rather driven on Mount Ida, where it will be abandoned to his fate. Taken in by a group of shepherds, given the name of Alexandre, son protected by the mountain; It will be high and will grow up in peace. As an adult, it recognize its legitimate position of prince of Troy, son of Priam. The prince was good-looking and smart, he therefore drew the attention of Zeus, the supreme of Olympus. He sent Hermes to choose a wise and good man, and Hermes chooses Paris; It will be intended to choose which among the three most beautiful goddess of Olympus, deserves the Apple of discord. Indeed, when the gods were assembled for the celebration of the marriage of Thetis and LEEP, the goddess Eris, Goddess of discord, had not been admitted to participated at this party because ellen' was not considered to be part of the gods of Olympus, she wanted so to avenge. She plucked a magical golden apples that is valuable to the garden of Hesperides, on which she serious registration for the most beautiful, before launching it on Olympus, in the middle of them.
The three goddesses Aphrodite, Athena and Hera, find her and each thinks that she is destined, so claim her. Now, Hermes having found this shepherd Paris, it is to him who encumbers the task of deciding who deserves the Apple of Discord. The three divinities promise Paris presents to influence his choice: Athena promises him the victory, Hera tells him who are his biological parents and Aphrodite the love of who he wants, probably the most beautiful. Paris finally offers the prize to Aphrodite. He is henceforth protected by this goddess who will favor all his enterprises, and Aphrodite to thank him, promises him the love of the most beautiful woman, Helen of Menelaus kings of Sparta. Once his rank was recognized and found at Sparta, Paris took advantage of the absence of King Menelaus, who had gone to Crete, to remove Helen, Queen of Sparta. According to some versions, Paris seduces Helen and persuades her to flee with him to Troy. Ulysses and Menelaus go to Troy to claim the fugitive. But the different embassies remain unsuccessful. Menelaus once returned, then reminds the Greek kings of the oath they took to protect Helen whatever happens, and asks them to gather their armies to attack Troy. Many kings answer the call of Menelaus. The army led by Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, and brother of Menelaus, was sent to Troy to bring back the abducted wife. This is the beginning of the Trojan War, which will last ten years according to the stories of the Iliad.
The Greeks besiege Troy for ten years. The city with its citadel Pergamum is heroically defended by the Trojans. The unfolding of the war advances despite everything and everyone on his side accumulates victories and defeats, alternating successes and setbacks on both sides. This war was absolutely over and we had to find a solution. The Greek fleet besieging the city on the sea side decided to leave and give the impression of abandoning its assault. They arm the boats beyond the visual behind rocks, but before that, by order and initiative of Ulysses, the Greeks build a large wooden horse that they abandon on the shores of Troy. In this hidden horse, a contingent of armed soldiers. The departure of the ships of the Trojans, suggests that the Greek abandon the battle and that the war is finally over without restitution of Helen. Content of such a tour of facts, the Trojans let go at the party and head to the shores to retrieve the wooden Grand Horse to bring it to town and keep it as a souvenir of a victory dedicated to the Goddess Pallas-Athena. When darkness comes, Ulysses with a thousand ruses and his companions come out of the horse. They open the doors. The Greeks, who waited only for the signal, come out of their hiding place and come to help sack the city of which there will be only one survivor Aeneas who will have time to escape by the sea. teeth, all the Greeks are there. Troy is taken and set on fire, the Greeks are furious and nothing resists them. Men are killed, women and children kept as slaves. Menelaus is happy, he has found his wife, Helen.
Flight of Aeneas
Aeneas did not take part in the beginning of the Trojan War. But one day when he was keeping his flocks, he was attacked by Achilles, who stole some of his cattle. Aeneas fled to Lyrnessos but always pursued by Achilles, he had to flee under the protection of Zeus, and seek refuge in Troy, where he joined the Trojan army. He married one of Priam's daughters, Creuse, with whom he had a child, Ascagne whom he called Julus.
Aeneas, in Greek Aineias, son of Anchises and the goddess Aphroditeeneus is a Prince of Toe hero of the omonime war and also a hero of the Roman mytology, so much sung by Virgil. He was a brave warrior, he was one of the main Trojan leaders during the Trojan War, the most valiant warrior after Hector but he sometimes put himself in perilous situations, especially when he fought against Achilles. During the destruction of Troy and the murder of Priam and his family, Aeneas flees Troy sacked, carrying his father Anchises, blind and paralyzed, on his back, dragging his son Ascagne with one hand, holding in the other the gods of the city as well as the Palladium, the sacred statuette of Pallas-Athene. During the flight his wife, Creuse, lost himself. He was going to look for him when his shadow appeared to him indicating that she was now under the protection of Aphrodite. As for him, he had to leave with their son Ascagne and found a new dynasty.
Travel of Aeneas
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During an eventful trip in the Mediterranean described in the Aeneid. He made a stop in Thrace, passed through Delos, and then arrived in Crete. For more than seven years, he wandered the sea in search of a shore to welcome him, braving the storms and anger of the deities, especially that of Hera. On the point of touching the coasts of Italy, having made a stop in Sicily, at Drepanon, where the old Anchises died, the ships of Aeneas were suddenly thrown down by a storm on the African coast near Carthage. Queen Dido, the founder of Carthage, welcomed the hero and fell in love with her. During a hunting party when a storm has gathered in a cave, they become lovers. But the gods did not want a union between Dido and Aeneas; Zeus ordered him to return to the shores of Sicily, where he received the hospitality of King Alceste and celebrated funeral games in memory of his father. Having finally reached the coast of Italy at Cumae, he decided to rest some time in this ancient Greek colony, and here he descended to the underworld, guided by the Sibyl, to consult the shadow of his father and listen to him. tell him to found a city here and create other dynasties. Back among the living, he went to Lazio and he considers that the land is favorable for a new family to develop, which he will do.
Au cours d'un voyage mouvementé en Méditerranée décrit dans l'Enéide. Il fit escale en Thrace, passa par Délos, puis arriva en Crète. Pendant plus de sept ans, il erra ensuite sur la mer à la recherche d'un rivage pour l’accueillir, bravant les tempêtes et la colère des divinités, en particulier celle d'Héra. Sur le point de toucher les côtes d'Italie, après avoir fait étape en Sicile, à Drépanon, où le vieil Anchise mourut, les navires d'Énée furent rejetés brusquement par une tempête sur la côte africaine, près de Carthage. La reine Didon, la fondatrice de Carthage, y accueillit le héros et en tomba amoureuse. Au cours d'une partie de chasse alors qu'un orage les a réunis dans une grotte, ils deviennent amants. Mais les dieux ne souhaitaient pas une union entre Didon et Enée ; Zeus ordonna à celui-ci de regagner les rivages de la Sicile, où il reçut l'hospitalité du roi Alceste et il célébra des jeux funèbres en mémoire de son père. Parvenu enfin sur les côtes d'Italie, à Cumes, il décida de reposer quelque temps dans cette ancienne Colonie grecque, et ici il descendit aux Enfers, guidé par la Sibylle, pour consulter l'ombre de son père et l'écouter, il lui dira de fonder une ville ici et créer d'autres dynasties. Revenu parmi les vivants, il se dirigea vers le Latium et la il considère que la terre est favorable pour que une nouvelle famille se développe, ce qu'il fera.
Aeneas in Lazio
Resuming the sea after having remained for some time in Carthage near Queen Elyssa, Didon for the Romans, Aeneas returning to the Tyrrhenian Sea, approaches the peninsular coast of southern Italy and, during a storm, near the region of Lucania in Calabria, he lost one of these most faithful Palinure men. It will be buried on the coast even in these places near a castling which will take the still existing name of Palinuro. Aeneas is traveling again because these Calabrian lands were too mountainous and lack of water sources was important. It continues towards the north and will arrive in the land dictates of the "Phalerum" that people the Falerii who will later take the denomination of Parthenopeans and, to the conquest of the Romans, this land will be called Neapolis. After a brief stay not far in the Greek colony of Cumae where he will speak to his father Anchise thanks to the help of the Sybille, the latter will inform him that the Greek troops his not far from looking for him, it was therefore necessary that he hurry up to find a place in this land to refuse.
After two days of sailing, in a beautiful morning of sun were found facing a rich coast with a beautiful plain back, crossed by a river of large dimensions. He had arrived on the lands of King Latinus, these inhabitants of the shepherds of average bill the Latins, he was at LATIUM.